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Vollständiger Vergleich von Prismatischen und Pouch Zellen

Complete comparison of prismatic and pouch cells

, by Sally Zhuang, 12 min reading time

Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, the use of rechargeable batteries is becoming more and more common in our daily lives. Among the different types of rechargeable batteries, prismatic and pouch cells are very popular.

In this article, we provide a complete comparison between prismatic cells and pouch cells to help you understand their characteristics.

Part 1. What are Prismatic LiFePO4 batteries?

Prismatic cells are a type of lithium-ion battery characterized by their rectangular or square shape. They are typically made of metal casings and are commonly used in laptops, tablets and power banks. Prismatic lithium-ion batteries use aluminum alloy or stainless steel for their rigid housing. The internal structure of the battery can be either wrapped or laminated, which provides better protection for the battery cell compared to the flexible packaging of pouch cells.

 

Power Queen 12.8V 100Ah Prismatic Cell – HOBOTECH Tear Down Review

Characteristics of Prismatic Cells

Prismatic cells are characterized by several characteristic features:

Shape and Size: Prismatic cells have a rigid rectangular shape that resembles a brick or flat box. They are available in different sizes and dimensions, from small to large.
Energy Density: Prismatic cells offer higher energy density compared to other lithium-ion battery types. This means they can store more energy in the same space, making them suitable for high energy applications.
High voltage: Prismatic cells generally have a higher output voltage, which can be an advantage in certain applications. This can result in better performance and efficiency for devices that require higher voltage levels.
Durability and Safety: Prismatic cells usually come with a metal casing, which provides better protection against external stress and damage. This can increase safety and durability, especially in applications where the battery may be exposed to harsh conditions.
Thermal Management: Due to their metal casing, prismatic cells have better thermal management capabilities. The case allows for more effective heat dissipation, reducing the risk of overheating and possible damage to the battery.

Part 2. What are pouch cells?

Bag LiFePO4 batteries (lithium iron phosphate) are a type of lithium-ion battery that uses LiFePO4 as the cathode material. The soft aluminum coating makes the battery lighter and allows for adjustable size and available space depending on the intended use. This allows flexible units to be easily adapted to the available space of a particular product. In terms of space optimization, this means achieving 90-95% packaging efficiency and higher energy density.

By introducing a more convenient design, soft pack batteries have the potential to compete with next-generation high-performance batteries, accelerating the electrification needs of electric vehicles and consumer electronics products.

 

Power Queen 12.8 V 100 Ah MINI pouch cell – Roll2 Videos

Advantages of pouch cells

Safety: LiFePO4 chemistry is inherently safer than other lithium-ion chemicals, such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2). It has higher thermal stability and is less prone to thermal runaway, making it less likely to catch fire or explode.
Long lifespan: LiFePO4 pouch cells typically have a longer lifespan compared to other lithium-ion batteries. They can endure hundreds or even thousands of charge-discharge cycles without significant capacity loss, making them suitable for applications that require long-term reliability.
High power density: LiFePO4 pouch cells have a high power density, so they can deliver high currents when required. This makes them suitable for applications that require high power output, such as electric vehicles or power tools.
Wide Temperature Range: LiFePO4 pouch cells can operate in a wide temperature range of -20°C to 60°C (-4°F to 140°F) without compromising performance . This makes them suitable for use in extreme temperatures and harsh environments.
Environmentally friendly: LiFePO4 chemistry does not contain harmful heavy metals such as cadmium or lead, making it more environmentally friendly and easier to recycle.
Lightweight and compact: The pouch cell design allows for a flexible and lightweight form factor, making it ideal for space-constrained applications where size and weight are critical factors.

Power Queen 12V 100Ah Mini LiFePO4 Battery is highly demanded in the market due to its compactness and light weight, weighing only 8.96 kg. Because it is only 3/5 the size of other batteries with the same capacity, it stands out from the competition. The use of pouch cell technology plays an important role in enabling such a small and lightweight design of this battery.

Safety concerns regarding Lifepo4 pouch cells

A common problem with pouch cells, including LiFePO4 pouch cells, is the possibility of swelling. Swelling can be caused by a variety of factors, such as improper charging or discharging, overcharging, or exposure to extreme temperatures.

However, it is important to note that LiFePO4 pouch cells are generally considered safer than other lithium-ion chemicals such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) or lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC). This is primarily due to the inherent stability of LiFePO4 chemistry, which is less susceptible to thermal runaway or “thermal runaway.”

LiFePO4 pouch cells have higher thermal stability and lower energy density compared to other lithium-ion chemicals. This means there is less risk of overheating and thermal runaway, making them a safer option for certain applications.

In addition, LiFePO4 pouch cells typically have a number of safety features, such as a pressure relief valve and thermal protection measures. These safety mechanisms help reduce the risk of swelling, overcharging or thermal runaway.

In addition, the flexible design of the pouch cells allows for more effective heat dissipation, preventing excessive temperature buildup and reducing the risk of swelling. Pouch cells also have lower internal resistance compared to prismatic cells, which helps minimize heat generation during charging and discharging.

It is worth noting that ensuring proper charging and discharging practices and maintaining the recommended temperature range are critical to maintaining the safety and longevity of any lithium-ion battery, including LiFePO4 pouch cells.

In summary, while swelling can be a potential problem for pouch cells, LiFePO4 pouch cells are generally considered safer than other lithium-ion chemistries due to their inherent stability and built-in safety features. By following proper care and maintenance guidelines, the risk of swelling and other safety issues can be minimized, making LiFePO4 pouch cells a reliable and safe choice for various applications.

To ensure compliance with regulatory standards such as UL, CE and RoHS, it is important to ensure that LiFePO4 pouch cells have the necessary safety certifications. These certifications show that the batteries meet strict safety and environmental requirements and have undergone thorough testing and quality control procedures.

The batteries from Power Queen have the highest level of safety as confirmed by UL test reports.

Difference between prismatic and pouch cells

Shape

Prismatic cells have a rigid rectangular shape, while pouch cells have a flexible, flat design. Prismatic cells are typically larger and bulkier, while pouch cells offer greater design flexibility and can be manufactured in various shapes and sizes.

Packaging materials

Prismatic cells generally have a metal casing that provides better durability and thermal management. Bag cells, on the other hand, use a flexible bag made of laminated materials such as aluminum and polymer, making them lightweight and allowing for more efficient use of space.

Size

Prismatic cells tend to be larger and thicker due to their rigid rectangular shape. Pouch cells are generally thinner and more compact, making them suitable for devices with limited space.

Weight

Prismatic cells are typically heavier due to the rigid metal housing. Because pouch cells are lightweight and use flexible packaging, they are lighter.

Cell voltage & capacity

Both prismatic and pouch cells can have different voltages and capacities depending on the specific chemistry and design. Typically they offer similar voltage ranges, but capacity can vary depending on design and size.

Durability

Prismatic cells, with their metal housing, offer better durability and resistance to external stress compared to pouch cells. Due to their flexibility, pouch cells are more susceptible to damage and may require additional safety measures.

Costs

Prismatic cells are generally more expensive to manufacture due to their special metal housing design. Pouch cells are often less expensive to manufacture due to their simpler construction and flexible packaging.

Performance

Prismatic cells have higher energy density and are suitable for high energy applications where durability and thermal management are critical, such as electric vehicles. Pouch cells offer higher power density due to their lightweight and flexible design, making them suitable for devices that require fast bursts of power, such as smartphones and tablets.

Application of prism cells vs. Pouch cells

Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized the way we power our electronic devices, from smartphones to electric vehicles. Among the different types of lithium-ion batteries available, Prismatic cells and Pouch cells are commonly used due to their unique properties.

Prismatic cells: powerhouses for robust applications

Prismatic cells, with their rectangular or square shape, are known for their longevity and robustness. They are often used in applications that require high performance and structural stability. Some notable applications include:
Electric Vehicles (EVs): Prismatic cells serve as the backbone of EV battery packs due to their ability to handle high currents and provide sufficient energy density. The rigid metal housing provides excellent protection against physical damage, ensuring safety and long-term reliability.
Power tools: Power-hungry tools such as cordless drills and saws require batteries that can deliver high performance. Prismatic cells excel in these scenarios, providing the power and endurance necessary for extended operation.
Energy Storage Systems (ESS): Prismatic cells are used in large energy storage projects where reliability and longevity are critical. Their robust design combined with their high capacity make them suitable for grid-level applications and help stabilize renewable energy sources.

 

Pouch cells: Lightweight and versatile

Pouch cells, on the other hand, offer a lighter and more flexible design, making them ideal for portable electronic devices and space-constrained applications. Let's dive into some standout areas where pouch cells shine:

Consumer Electronics: Smartphones, tablets and portable devices benefit greatly from the thin and compact form factor of pouch cells. These cells can be individually tailored to the specific dimensions of the electronics, maximizing space utilization while providing sufficient power capacity.
Medical devices: Pouch cells are used in various medical devices, such as pacemakers and insulin pumps. Their small size and light weight make them ideal for implantable and wearable medical technologies.
Aerospace and Drones: The aerospace industry relies on lightweight components to optimize fuel efficiency. Due to their light weight and customizable form factor, pouch cells are increasingly being used in aircraft and drones to power onboard systems and ensure longer flight times.

Advantages of prism and pouch cells

While each cell type has its specific applications, both prismatic and pouch cells offer certain advantages:

Prismatic cells offer longer durability and better protection due to their rigid metal housing.
Pouch cells are lighter and more flexible, allowing greater design freedom and higher energy density in a compact space.
Both cell types deliver reliable performance with similar cell voltage and capacity.
Prismatic cells excel in high-performance applications, while pouch cells shine in portable and space-constrained devices.

 

Prismatic vs. Q&A Pouch cells

1. Why compress LiFePO4 cells?

Compression of LiFePO4 cells improves contact between components, increases energy density, increases safety and extends lifespan, making them more efficient and reliable energy storage solutions. It offers advantages such as improved performance, compactness and mitigation of risks such as internal short circuits and gas leakage.

 2. How do you charge prism or pouch LiFePO4 batteries?

You can charge LiFePO4 batteries via generators, solar panels and LiFePO4 battery chargers. Read on how to charge LiFePO4 batteries to find out more.

Conclusion

In summary, both prismatic and pouch cells are safe to use. And each type has its own advantages. Choosing reliable brands like Power Queen that have passed safety certifications like UL testing is definitely important when deciding which batteries to use.

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