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Warum ist Schutz vor niedrigen Temperaturen für Lithiumbatterien wichtig?

Why is low temperature protection important for lithium batteries?

, by Sally Zhuang, 6 min reading time

Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LiFePO4) have become a preferred energy source for various applications, from renewable energy systems to electric vehicles, due to their safety, durability and environmental friendliness. However, despite their robustness, LiFePO4 batteries are not immune to the challenges posed by cold environments. Understanding why low temperature protection is paramount can help maximize the performance, safety and life of these batteries.

Understanding LiFePO4 battery chemistry

A LiFePO4 battery is a type of lithium-ion battery that uses lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. The performance of a LiFePO4 battery essentially relies on the movement of lithium ions between the anode and cathode during charging and discharging. However, this movement is strongly dependent on temperature.

Challenge at low temperatures

At lower temperatures, the internal resistance of a LiFePO4 battery increases significantly. This increase in resistance hinders the mobility of the lithium ions in the electrolyte and makes it difficult to charge and discharge the battery effectively. Below certain temperature thresholds, typically around 0°C (32°F), the following problems may occur:

Reduced Capacity: The available capacity of a LiFePO4 battery can decrease dramatically in cold temperatures because the chemical reaction that produces electrical energy is less efficient.

Decreased charge capacity: Cold temperatures can severely affect the battery's ability to accept charges. Attempting to force the charges at normal speed can result in the deposition of metallic lithium on the anode, which is irreversible and harmful.

Slower discharge rates: The battery's ability to supply power is compromised, so it may not be able to meet the energy needs of the device or system it powers.

Long-term damage: Repeated charging and discharging at low temperatures can cause permanent damage, reducing both the cycle time and overall battery life.

Observe the following general temperature ranges for lithium batteries

Operating temperature range: Lithium batteries generally operate in a temperature range of -20°C to 60°C (-4°F to 140°F) and ensure proper function within this range.

Charging temperature range: It is recommended to charge lithium batteries between 0°C and 45°C (32°F to 113°F) to ensure efficient charging and avoid potential problems.

More information: how to charge LiFePO4 batteries

Storage temperature range: For optimal retention of capacity and performance, Lithium batteries should be stored in a temperature range of 15°C to 25°C.

It is important to note that these are general guidelines and that specific lithium battery models or manufacturers may have different requirements. Please always refer to the product specifications for the exact temperature limits.

Charging lithium batteries outside of these areas may involve risks. Charging below freezing can slow reactions and cause damage, while charging above the recommended range can result in overheating, thermal runaway, or even explosion.

Protection mechanisms at low temperatures

To counteract these problems, protective measures are crucial:

Battery management systems (BMS): A BMS can monitor the temperatures of individual cells and prevent charging if the battery falls below the safe temperature threshold. It can also balance cells to ensure uniform temperature and reduce the risks of charging in cold weather conditions.

The Power Queen 12V 100Ah Nidriegtemp battery versions are equipped with an improved BMS that automatically stops charging when the temperature falls below 0℃ (32℉)).

In addition to low temperature protection, the BMS also provides protection against overcharge, over-discharge, over-current, high temperature and short circuit.

Thermal management solutions: By implementing heating mechanisms in the battery system, optimal temperatures can be maintained. This can range from insulated enclosures to integrated heating elements that activate when the temperature gets too low.

The self-heating Power Queen LiFePO4 battery (12V 100Ah) is equipped with an integrated automatic heating function. This function is triggered when the battery is connected to a charger and the ambient temperature is between -20℃ and 5℃ (-4℉ to 41℉). Once the temperature of the battery reaches 10℃ (50℉), the heating mechanism will automatically turn off.

The warm-up process takes about 90 minutes to raise the temperature of the battery from -10℃ (14℉) to 10℃ (50℉), and about 150 minutes to raise it from -20℃ (-4℉). 10℃ (50℉).

Intelligent charging strategies: Intelligent charging technology can adjust the charging speed according to the temperature, ensuring that the battery is not damaged by charging too quickly in cold conditions.

Low temperature chemistry adaptations: Some LiFePO4 cells are equipped with additives or special electrolytes that improve low temperature performance and reduce the risks associated with cold environments.

How to keep your batteries warm in winter

It is important to keep LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate) batteries warm in winter to maintain their functionality and longevity. Here are some strategies you can use:

1. Insulation

Use insulated battery boxes: Store your batteries in insulated boxes to maintain their temperature. This can be as simple as using thick foam or specially designed thermal containers that fit around the battery.

Add insulating covers: Use insulating covers or blankets made specifically for batteries. These often reflect heat back to the battery, keeping it warm.

2. Temperature controlled environments

Heated rooms: Store the batteries in a room with controlled heating, e.g. b in a garage or cottage with a small heater so that the ambient temperature does not fall below the battery's minimum operating temperature.

3. Battery heating solutions

Integrated battery heaters: Some LiFePO4 batteries have integrated heating systems that can be switched on automatically at certain temperatures.

External Battery Heaters: Purchase external battery warmers that work like a heating pad to maintain a battery's operating temperature range.

4. Loading strategies

Charge the battery during the warmest time of day: If possible, charge the battery when temperatures are naturally warmer to reduce the strain on the battery.

Charge slowly: Use a slower charging speed as this generates less heat and is less likely to damage the battery at low temperatures.

5. Intelligent electronics

Use a smart battery management system (BMS): A BMS can monitor and regulate temperature, ensuring the battery is not charged or discharged at temperatures that could cause damage. Some systems can even control external heaters.

6. Protective placement

Store batteries indoors: Bring device batteries indoors when not in use to store them at room temperature.

Buried battery banks: For stationary applications, e.g. b In an off-grid solar system, you should bury your battery bank underground, where the temperature is more constant and warmer than in the air in winter.

7. Regular maintenance

Monitor battery status: Regularly check the battery charge and health status. Discharged batteries are more susceptible to damage from cold temperatures.

Keep the connections tight: Ensure that all connections are secure, as this may affect the performance of the battery and its ability to heat up during use.

8. Pre-planning usage

Gradual warm-up: Before use, allow the battery to gradually warm up to operating temperature before applying large amounts of power.

Following these steps will help ensure your LiFePO4 batteries maintain optimal performance during the cold winter months. Remember to always follow the manufacturer's recommendations for temperature management and know the specifications of your particular batteries.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of protecting LiFePO4 batteries at low temperatures cannot be overestimated. By understanding the challenges and integrating the right technologies and strategies, we can help ensure the integrity and performance of these batteries in cold temperatures to ensure they continue to power a future that is increasingly focused on sustainable, reliable and safe Energy storage solutions are required.

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